Ideas competition for the upgrading of the Borgo San Sergio quarter of Trieste

International ideas competition for the study of project proposals open to students enrolled in the Faculty of Architecture and Engineering and to graduates who have obtained their degree from the Summer term of the academic year 2000-2001 on, not yet eligible to practice the profession of architect or engineer.

Application deadline: 12.00 am, 31 July 2002. 
Submission deadline: 12.00 am, 18 October 2002.

1. Organisers, procedure committee and competition secretariat Organisers
Ater-Public Housing Agency of the Trieste Province, Faculty of Architecture-University of Trieste, Municipality of Trieste, Province of Trieste, Roll of Architects, Planners, Landscape designers and Conservation specialists of the Trieste Province, Ministry of Cultural Properties and Activities-General Directorate for Contemporary Architecture and Art.

Competition secretariat
The Secretariat for the competition is: 
Ater-Unitą Operativa Relazioni Esterne
Piazza Foraggi n. 6
Fax 040390885
Hours: 10.00 a.m.-13.00 p.m.

The competition brief is posted on the web site www.units.it/architet/ater.

2. Type of competition
It is an open, anonymous, one stage international ideas competition. 

3. Object and purpose of the competition
The Ater-Public Housing Agency of the Trieste Province, on the occasion of the centenary of its founding, announces, together with the Faculty of Architecture of Trieste, the Municipality of Trieste, the Province of Trieste, the Roll of Architects, Planners, Landscape designers and Conservation specialists of the Trieste Province, the General Directorate for Contemporary Architecture and Art of the Ministry of Cultural Properties and Activities, an international ideas competition for the upgrading of the Borgo San Sergio and Rozzol Melara quarters of Trieste. This Brief regards only the Borgo San Sergio area.

The Ater of Trieste was founded on 14 July 1902 as a Municipal Institute for Affordable Housing (Icam) and in 1924 it became the Autonomous Public Housing Institute (Iacp). The Ater of Trieste is one of the first public bodies in charge of operating low cost housing in Europe. It was taken as an example in the drafting of the Italian legislation on public housing approved in 1903 and as a model for the foundation of the first institutes established in Italy. Throughout the 20th century, the Icam-Iacp-Ater built about one fourth of the homes of Trieste, and became the most important operator in the field of housing, contributing substantially to the construction of the city and to the definition of its urban and architectural image.

The Ater of Trieste, together with the other important city and national institutions promoting the competition, wants to take the opportunity of its centenary not only to look back to its history, but also to reflect upon the role the institute has played in the growth of the city and in the improvement of its spaces, as well as to look to the future development of Trieste and its province, and, more broadly to deal with outskirts upgrading themes.

This competition aims at redesigning the Borgo San Sergio quarter - along with Rozzol Melara, object of the first brief - in order to start a more general reflection on the conditions of those parts of city promoted by different public administrations during the 20th century with the aim of meeting considerable housing needs. These housing complexes are the result of a unitary scheme involving spaces and facilities as well. But during the implementation stage, or afterwards, these complexes had already partially lost their character of being exemplar and recognisable. As expressions of different ideas of cities and living space, these quarters are significant evidence of different policies, cultures and techniques, which proposals should not only seek to upgrade but also to protect and conserve. In particular, this competition aims to reappraise the meaning, the shape and the function of collective and relational spaces within the quarter unit, since we are convinced that these elements can play a fundamental role in new development processes. During the design phase, these spaces and their function were to form and represent new communities of citizens. However, the separation between the construction phase of the buildings and the implementation of the open space scheme, as well as the different levels of care and maintenance of the un-built area, has often led to negative effects on the quality of the entire "living space", both built and open.

Competitors are asked to submit a project proposal for Borgo San Sergio, which aims at improving the living space of the quarter and, on the whole, at redefining its role within the surrounding urban context. The Ater and the Municipality of Trieste could draw from the proposals submitted in this competition for future interventions regarding the aforementioned project site. 

4. Areas and themes of the project

4.1. The location of the quarter
The Borgo S. Sergio quarter is located in the south-eastern part of the city of Trieste, close to the municipal borders, within the Zaule area. It lies behind the industrial port, and is separated from the latter by via Flavia (main road n. 15 to Muggia) and by a belt of mixed residential, productive and commercial developments. The quarter was mainly built by public undertakings which started in the late 1950s. At that time the area was completely undeveloped, lying at the foot of the Monte Castiglione and descending towards the sea. The following developments incorporated the building into a fragmented and heterogeneous urban sprawl.

4.2. Notes on the original project and on the construction of the quarter In the early 50s, the decision to develop a port and industrial district south-east of the Trieste city centre and to build a new "urban zone" in the near plane area led to the definition of what would be one of the main expansion guidelines in the last decades. In 1949 the Industrial Port Authority of Trieste (Epit) was established and the location of a new residential quarter was already indicated in the port master plan drawn a year later. The Epit's intention was two-fold: flats had to be built for the workers of the new industrial area; a quarter with all the services necessary for every-day life was to be created because of its distance from the city. In 1954, when Trieste was given back to Italy after nine years of allied military Government, at the Ministry of Public Works, the Public Housing Coordination Committee (Cep) was founded. Its aim was to carry out a coordination experiment between the different bodies in charge of public housing construction in order to develop residential complexes where flats and services would be built at the same time. In 1955 the Epit, chaired by the lawyer Bruno Forti who played a central role in the promotion of the initiative, entrusted the architect of Triestine origins, Ernesto Nathan Rogers, with the design of the overall project for the quarter. He taught at the Faculty of Architecture of the Milan Polytechnic and was member of the renowned Bbpr design office in Milan. Rogers made use of the collaboration of the Trieste Municipality engineer Aldo Badalotti. In 1957 the Ministry of Public Works signed the Cep convention, launching the construction of the Borgo S. Sergio coordinated quarter, encompassing an area of about 65 ha for 8-10.000 residents. Many other bodies took part in the construction over the years (Epit, Iacp and Municipality of Trieste, Ina-Casa and Unrra-Casas). At the basis of the project lies an idea of city growth through self-sufficient entities (satellite nuclei) as an alternative to "oil stain": "No longer a spread, from the existing core, of road networks and buildings evenly covering new portions of municipal territory, but the construction of a co-ordinated system of organisms each one of them with its heart, i.e. its life centre, with the square, the Church, the market, the municipal offices, the leisure spaces, etc., as well as the necessary more modest secondary centres" (A. Badalotti, "Il Borgo S. Sergio e il Piano Regolatore della cittą", in Ente del porto industriale di Trieste, Notiziario, special issue on Borgo S. Sergio, May 1956). And moreover, Ernesto Nathan Rogers underlines the unitariness and the spatial articulation of the quarter: "Borgo San Sergio was conceived ... as an urban organic entity and largely self-sufficient; this means that besides the diverse types of houses, grouped in different ways to satisfy the manifold sociological needs, a community centre was planned where all the civic, economic, religious and leisure activities could take place" (E.N. Rogers, "Lineamenti urbanistici e architettonici", in Ente del porto industriale di Trieste, Notiziario, cit.).

The principles on which the Borgo S. Sergio project is based can be
summarised as follows:
- the characterisation and the richness in terms of spaces and functions of the civic centre which, placed in a barycentric position, should have gathered the main quarter's activity undertaking the role of reference point for the collective life ("It is essential that the Centre is built with a unity of style able to assure not only the harmonious aspect of the buildings themselves, but mainly that relation among them (created by squares, staircases and arcades well arranged to connect them) which is sympathetic with the inspirational reasons of the project", E.N. Rogers, "Lineamenti urbanistici e architettonici", cit.). Two secondary centres on the western and eastern borders of the quarter were added to the main centre; 
- the creation of a development integrated with the surrounding environment, consisting of different residential nuclei located around the main centre, following the pattern of slopes, in areas protected from the wind. The nuclei had to include open spaces for individual and collective use forming a 'neighbourhood unit', where meeting places for the residents and playgrounds for children would alternate with the gardens and vegetable gardens of each flat;
- the arrangement of vehicular roads along the perimeter of the residential nuclei and collective centres from which secondary cul-de-sac roads branch off ("the neighbourhood's roads have been reduced to the minimum necessary, organised on a three ring system, one running around the Castiglione mountain, the other built on its slopes, the third on the ridge of the valley between the two hills; the three rings together form a belt surrounding the entire residential area; these roads follow the topography, they do not break their flow, they do not modify their natural configuration, they do not interrupt the views. Only alleys leading to the houses are added to these few natural routes", A. Badalotti, "Il Borgo S. Sergio e il Piano Regolatore della cittą", cit.);
- the differentiation of building typologies to meet the different needs of the future residents. The types envisaged by the project were mainly two-storey houses alternating with four storey houses accommodating on the ground floor shops for day-to-day provisions and some tall buildings (twelve storeys) arranged around the main core. 

The construction of Borgo S. Sergio continued for about 20 years: from 1957 to 1978, the year when the Public and Economic Housing Plan (Peep) envisaged a further development of the quarter along the northern end. But already from the end of the 60s many private housing undertakings have been built along the borders and on the free spaces inside (mainly in the south-western side).

What is left of the original project design is the general grid of the routes, the green core and the location of facilities along its perimeter (although there were many delays and deficiencies in the construction of public services). While little of the original arrangement in residential nuclei and of the complex system of open collective and individual spaces has been actually carried out. Although there are many green spaces, these are mainly private gardens around one-family houses or uncared for flower beds located in front of row buildings. Many open spaces within the residential nuclei planned by the project have been converted into parking areas; in the same way the 'park' with sports facilities, at the centre of the quarter, is today a large unsolved space.

4.3. The competition area and the suggested project themes
The competition area encompasses the entire site of the original structure of the quarter, bounded by the streets A. Grego, M. Maovaz, B. Buozzi, R. Rosani, S. Petracco. The boundaries shown in the planimetry attached are to be considered as an indication and can be better defined or modified during the design process. The project proposal will have to satisfy the following requirements:
- the redefinition and strengthening in terms of morphology and function (even with demolition and/or new development) of what originally was to be the main core of the quarter: today consisting of the large open space bordered by the streets S. Forti, E. Curiel, S. Petracco where the church, the parish centre, the market area, office buildings, sports grounds and two school buildings stand; 
- the morphologic and functional configuration of secondary cores which should be articulated inside and differentiated from one another, starting from the redesign of open spaces located in the different residential nuclei which are recognised as the structuring elements of the quarter (the 'polycentric' organisation proposed by the original project should be reviewed, even with demolition and/or new development). Other possible project themes could concern:
- the redesign of relational patterns and walkways between main core, secondary cores and residential nuclei;
- the proposals of even innovative solutions to the car parking problem, which currently invades most open spaces within the residential cores;
- the study and the reconfiguration of the relations between the quarter and the urban fabrics which directly confront it: in particular the buildings belonging to the Peep of 1978 built during the 80s on the northern edge, the belt of mixed residential, productive and commercial developments on the south-western edge and the residential small size lotting which developed mainly on the eastern and western ends of the quarter.

5. Participation terms and conditions

5.1. The competition is open to students enrolled at the Faculty of Architecture and Engineering and to graduates of the same Faculties who have obtained their degree from the Summer term of the academic year 2000-2001 on, not yet eligible to practice the profession of architect or engineer, as defined by the requirements in existence in their country.

5.2. Besides individual participation, team entries are allowed as well. All members of the team must comply with the requirements set out in paragraph 5.1. Every team when entering the competition is to designate a member as representative of the team and sole interlocutor with the organisers. A team of competitors will have collectively the same rights of an individual participant. The authorship of the project proposals submitted is recognised to all members of the group. The creation of working teams will also be allowed after the deadline for application if the team leader has already applied. 

5.3. Every group or individual participant is to submit only one project proposal. Each participant cannot take part in more than one group at the same time, on pain of disqualification of the participant as well as all the teams participating with him. 

5.4. Every participant is to carefully check the terms and conditions for participation. Participation takes place on one's own responsibility.

5.5. The presentation of the project proposals is to be made anonymously. Any form of identification or distinguishing mark, which might reveal the name of the competitors is to be omitted. Should the Postal service require the indication of the sender, the display shall be that of one of the competition organisers.

6. Application procedure
In order to participate in the competition, applications must reach the Secretariat address no later than 12.00 a.m. on 31 July 2002 by mail or fax. The applications must be drawn up on the form downloadable from the web site www.units.it/architet/ater/. Upon entering the competition the name, surname, date of birth, address, telephone, e-mail and fax of the candidate or group leader, who is to be the reference for any communication, must be indicated and undersigned by every member of the team.

7. Criteria of ineligibility

7.1. The competitors who do not respect the terms of the application and/or the delivery of projects, or who infringe the principle of anonymity of submissions will be disqualified. 

7.2. The following may not participate in the competition:
- spouses, relatives and in-laws up to the third degree of the jury members;
- employees of the competition organisers or those who hold a co-ordinated and continuous collaboration with the members of the jury;
- those who have taken part in drawing up the brief and the attached documents as well as those who are continuous collaborators of the organising bodies and institutions.

8. Competition documentation
The organisers will provide the participants with the following materials: 
- the competition brief and its attachments;
- iconographic documentation;
- outline of the competition area;
- cartography and application form.
All the materials are available on the web site www.units.it/architet/ater/.

9. Submission details
Design projects are to be submitted on 3 A1 horizontal tables and in a bound album size A3, composed of a maximum of 12 pages plus the cover. Both the tables and the album cover shall bear in the top right corner a motto with a maximum of 40 characters including spaces, 1 cm high, and on the tables the Arabic number corresponding to their presentation order. Under no circumstances may the competitors infringe the anonymity with symbols, marks or other identifying elements. Texts may be written in Italian or English. The projects required shall use the decimal metric system as the system of measurement and contain a metric graphic reference in order to enable publication in reduced formats. The 3 tables, black-and-white or colour, mounted on light rigid panels shall contain, in the scale deemed most appropriate:
- a general plan of the area with the inclusion of the project;
- plans, elevations and meaningful sections of the project;
- axonometric drawings, perspectives, photomontages and any other graphic representation suitable for the purpose of illustrating the project.
The black-and white or coloured album shall contain:
- a report of 8000 characters including spaces maximum, in case illustrated with pictures, sketches and graphic diagrams, containing the guiding criteria for the project and its urban integration in the context;
- a reduced scale reproduction of the 3 tables of the project.

10. Submission delivery
The project solutions must be delivered in a sealed envelope, bearing the title of the competition on the outside. The envelope shall contain:
- the 3 tables and the album;
- a CD-Rom labelled with the chosen motto containing three .tiff extension files representing the tables submitted, one .rtf file with the report and a 2000 characters (including spaces) maximum abstract of the report;
- an anonymous opaque sealed envelope containing the particulars of the competitor or of the members of the group. The envelope must also contain: the designation of the group leader undersigned by all the group members and their names, including those of possible consultants and/or collaborators; a declaration of each competitor attesting compliance with the necessary participation requirements (the Competition Secretariat will verify the contents of the self-declaration and disqualify from the competition in case it proves to be even partly untrue); the authorisation to exhibit and possibly publish the design projects and to cite the names of the designers, non-winners as well. On each sheet the motto chosen by each competitor or team will have to be indicated.

The projects must reach the Competition Secretariat by 12.00 am on 18 October 2002. In those cases in which delivery of projects is assigned to a carrier (state postal service or authorised couriers), they must be postmarked no later than 12.00 am on 18 October 2002 (the postmark is proof) and the package must be received within the following seven days. Any delay is considered reason for exclusion. The competition organisers are not responsible to the competitors in case of loss of the package.

11. Schedule
Application deadline: 12.00 am on 31 July 2002.
Submission deadline: 12.00 am on 18 October 2002.
Competition results will be announced by 30 November 2002.
The awarding of prizes will coincide with the opening of the exhibition 1902-2002 Icam-Iacp-Ater: a century of public housing in Trieste.

12. Jury
The jury is composed of: Manuel de Las Casas, Bernardo Secchi, the President of the Ater, the Dean of the Faculty of Architecture of Trieste, Paola Di Biagi coordinator of the initiatives for the Ater centenary and professor at the Faculty of Architecture of Trieste, the Major of Trieste, the Land Planning Councillor of the Municipality of Trieste, the President of the Trieste Province, the President of the Roll of Architects, Planners, Landscape designers and Conservation specialists of the Trieste Province, the General Director for Contemporary Architecture and Art of the Ministry of Cultural Properties and Activities. Each representative of the organising bodies can possibly appoint a deputy. The two Secretaries for the competition will take part in the meeting of the jury without right of vote. The jury will judge the entries within 40 days from the submission date. 

13. Jury proceedings and competition results
The jury's proceedings will be secret, and considered effective with the presence of at least half plus one of its members. The president will be appointed by the jury members during the first meeting. The jury deliberation is unappealable. A draft of the minutes containing the jury's proceedings and the judgement on the projects will be drawn up during the meeting and signed by the jury members at the end of the proceedings. Results will be sent by registered post to the winners. The names of the winners and the jury's report will be posted on the web site www.units.it/architet/ater/.

14. Prizes and honourable mentions
The competition overall prize money amount totals 9,000 Euro, divided as follows:
First prize: 4.000 Euro
Second prize: 2.500 Euro
Third prize: 1.500 Euro
2 mentions: 500 Euro each
The jury can modify the number and the division of the prizes if by general consent it considers that the quality of the projects does not comply with the fixed division of the prize money. The jury reserves the right to mention, without reward, design solutions showing innovative aspects.

15. Publication of competition results
The prize-winning entries and honourable mentions will be displayed in the exhibition 1902-2002 Icam-Iacp-Ater: a century of public housing in Trieste. The Ater reserves the right to publish the project proposals in the modality deemed most appropriate (catalogue of events, national and international magazines, web sites). Moreover, the Ministry of Cultural Properties and Activities will decide whether to publish winning entries and honourable mentions on its web site.

16. Ownership of the design projects
Authors hold rights of intellectual ownership of their project solutions. The winning entries or honourable mentions will become the property of the Ater of Trieste. The remaining entries will be available to the competitors who may collect them at their own expense, from the Competition Secretariat, on furnishing proof of identity, after 3 March 2003 and no later than 30 April 2003. After this date the Ater will no longer be held responsible for the conservation of the submitted materials.

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